Besides buying a car outright, renting one is also an option. I ended up renting my car after the one from my predecessor was no longer running, but the process may differ for other people. One of my JTEs remembered the name of a company in Kokubu (World Motors Kokubu) and called them for me. After getting a ride to their showroom and looking at a car they had, the company owner offered to let me do a long-term rental instead of buying. I paid about 10,000Y per month for the first year I rented, but my car insurance was paid separately.
What I liked about renting was that any maintenance (shakken particularly) on the car is covered by my rental contract, and that I could pay year by year instead of all at once. The downsides to renting were that I had to switch cars a few times, and because they’re rented cheaply the car models are much older than you might buy from a dealer. If you’re sure of only staying in Japan for one year or think renting might be for you, ask your supervisor about options from companies in your area
Laura Boville is a 2nd year ALT in Kanoya, Kagoshima.